Category: Written by Nerella Bharat / 10:45 PM
1. In 'Grooming' Desmond Morris describes types of talking what are they?Desmond Morris, the essaist, mentions that the custom of talking, according to him, evolved due to the need for a co-operative exchange of information carried out along four major patterns of learnt sound signals.

a) Information talking: The first of these is the system of information talking, whereby communicators refer to objects in the environment as well as to the past present and future.

b) Mood talking: In the next stage of evolvement this communication pattern takes on the system of mood talking, by which we express more through different vocal tones ranging from yelps and screams to soft cooings.

c) Exploratory talking: The third form of verbalization is exploratory talking where the speaker's main intention is to play at talking, purely as a for of aestheticism. This type of talking can be compared to picture making by an artist.

d) Grooming talk: The fourth form is grooming talking, which is polite chatter undertaken to maintain social togetherness after the speakers have exchanged smiles of greeting. hence this kind of talk is the most important substitute for social grooming.

2. According to Desmond Morris, what does information talking enable man to do? According to Desmond Morris, the behaviour pattern of talking evolved originally out of an increased need for a co-operative exchange of information which developed through a more complex series of learnt sound signals. These vocal units and their combinations and re-combinations became the basis of information talking. This enabled man to refer to objects in the environment and also to the past and future as well as to the present to get information to be useful.

3. The writer distinguishes two kinds of grooming. What are they? Why is the distinction necessary?
Desmond Morris talks about two kinds or grooming in the essay on Grooming. What are these two types? Why is the distinction between the two necessary?
What are the two kinds of grooming mentioned by Morris? How do they differ?
The two kinds of grooming are 1. self-grooming (personal grooming) and 2. social grooming.

1. Self-grooming: This is to keep the body, hair and feathers warm, clean and free from parasites. Self-grooming is insufficient in that birds or animals cannot grooms some parts of their body. There fore the need for social grooming developed.

2. Social - Grooming: In this the groomer invites the groomee by some gestures of actions like lip-smaking among monkeys. This is to help two animals to stay close together and to tie together the inter personal bonds. Thus, a distinction between the two has been made the distinction is necessary because one is for the survival and the other for the social need.

4. What is the function of grooming in the life of animals? (March 90)
Why did social grooming evolve?
An animal can't groom its back and head all by itself. To overcome its difficulty, they have evolved social grooming. It is a friendly mutual aid system. It enables two animals to stay close together. It helps to tie tighter the inter-personal bonds (unibonds) between the individuals in a troop or colony even if the conditions of their fun hardly warrants it. Their motivation seems to be more social than cosmetic.

5. Grooming is a complex activity which consists of many subactivities. What are they?Grooming is a biological need among birds, animals, etc., it consists of many sub-activities they are licking, nibbling, scratching and rubbing.

6. How do animals survive the wear and tear of their body surface? Animals survive the wear and tear of their body surface by a wonderful system of tissue replacement and through certain special comfort movements.

7. How according to Desmond Morries, is the cocktail party different from the formal business encounter? In the cocktail party, serious talking is suppressed by the host or hostess who intervenes to break long conversation and afford the natural groomers maximum social contact. But in the formal business encounter, we can see a decline in the grooming talk. It is entirely confined to the opening and closing moments. Small or informal dinner parties provide a slightly different situation. Here the grooming talk can be observed to fade as the evening progresses and the verbal exchange of serious information and ideas can be seen to gain dominance.

8. What kinds of Grooming habits do we have? Give two examples. 
Smiling and verbalized vocalization are the grooming habits we have developed.

9. The writer says that we, human beings are also like the other creatures as far as our grooming habits are concerned. In what respects are human beings similar in grooming? Why? Like Birds and other Animals, man who is the higher primate, also requires some sort of grooming. He also evolves social grooming in the form of smiling and verbal vocalisation. Animals do lipsmacking, birds do preening while man smiles. Social gatherings on occasions or parties are know as grooming sources. So, we too like grooming as well as the other animals.
What is the human substitute for social grooming? What is it function in our society?
The human substitute of social grooming is 'grooming talking' which is a polite chatter on social occasions. It enables us to expose ourselves communally to one another over long periods and helps to strengthen the valuable bonds of friendship. Its function is to reinforce the greeting smile and to maintain the social togetherness.

10. What is the writer's explanation for some people fondle their pets by stroking or scratching them? (Or) "Pet animals are more inviting and few naked apes can resist the temptation to stroke a cat's fur or scratch a dog behind the ear". What reason does the author Desmaond Morris give for such behaviour in naked apes? (Mar, Sep89)
Naked skins many not send out exciting grooming signals. Fluffy or furryclothing often releases strong groom response. That is the reason why man often strokes the cat's fur, scratches a dog behind the ear. Some people fondle their pet animals or birds by stroking or scratching them because it will satisfy their urge for grooming.

11. What is grooming talk? How is it different from three sums of talking?Grooming talk plays a dominant role immediately after the initial greeting ritual. If the group has come together for purely social reasons grooming talk may, of course, persist throughtout to the exclusion of information, mood or exploratory talk.

12. Some Latin writer called man 'Homo Lequens' i.e., 'Man, the talking animal'. Man's ability to speak, to use language does the job of many of the behaviour patterns of animals. How does language function as a grooming device?Man is the only animal that can laugh and talk. Instead of some movements of gestures, man gets grooming service or offers his service to others using his language. It acts as a grooming service among human beings. We make lengthy and meaningless talks just for a sense of pleasure.
In human grooming, smiling (the 'grooming invitation' substitute) has to be maintained in order to reinforce the initial friendly contacts. This can be done through our ability to speak and to sue the language, Language, here, has become our substitute for social grooming and functions as a device to maintain the social togetherness.
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